Second Grade Essential Learning


Essential Learning for Second Grade

At the end of second grade, students should be able to demonstrate mastery of the following:


Reading and Writing

·         Read independent and instructional level selections fluently (90 words correct per minute).

·         Include newly acquired vocabulary in language.

·         Accurately apply knowledge of phonics when reading and spelling. 

·         Accurately read and spell high-frequency and unfamiliar words.

·         Reread sentences when meaning is not clear.

·         Interpret diagrams, charts, and graphs.

·         Recall facts and details from text.

·         Discuss and connect information across fiction and informational text.

·         Make reasonable judgments about what to include in writing tasks.

·         Write for different audiences and purposes.

·         Generate ideas before writing; edit first drafts of writing for publication.

·         Demonstrate organization in writing assignments.

·         Attend to spelling, mechanics, and presentation for final products.



·         Use place value with numbers through 000.

·         Compose and decompose numbers (represent numbers in multiple ways).

·         Memorize and use addition and subtraction to 18.

·         Model addition and subtraction and solve problems with 2-digit numbers with and without regrouping.

·         Model fractional parts of whole and of a set.

·         Find the value of groups of coins up to $1.00 and use cent and dollar symbols and decimal points to describe them.

·         Multiply and divide with concrete objects.

·         Use patterns in numbers and operations such as on 100 charts, in place value, and fact families.

·         Describe relationships and make predictions as in paired numbers and patterns in repeated addition.

·         Describe and compare 2-D shapes and 3-D figures such as circles, polygons, spheres, cones, cylinders, and pyramids.

·         Locate numbers on a number line.

·         Tell time on analog and digital clocks using five minute increments.

·         Measure lengths with non-standard objects that are about 1 inch, 1 foot, etc.

·         Compare attributes of length, area, weight, and capacity to solve problems.

·         Read a thermometer.

·         Construct and draw conclusions from picture and bar graphs.

·         Solve problems using a plan and appropriate problem solving strategies, including manipulatives, and communicate about the mathematics through informal language.

·         Use logical reasoning.


Social Studies

·         Identify and explain the significance of landmarks, celebrations, and contributions of historical figures.

·         Create and interpret timelines; describe and measure calendar time.

·         Use symbols and find locations on maps and globes; draw maps; identify ways people depend on, adapt to, and modify the environment.

·         Identify government services in the community; compare roles of government officals and ways they are selected.

·         Explain important American customs and symbols; give examples of good citizens, past and present.

·         Identify and explain the significance of local cultural heritage.

·         Describe the ways science and technology have changed transportation and communication.

·         Communicate in written, oral, and visual forms.

·         Understand roles of producers and consumers in a free enterprise system.



·         Plan and conduct simple investigations using standard and non-standard measurement units.

·         Identify components and processes of the natural world (water cycle, use of resources).

·         Observe melting and evaporation, weathering, and pushing/pulling of objects as examples of change.

·         Distinguish between characteristics of living organisms and nonliving objects and compare plant/animal needs for survival.

·         Describe living organisms' dependence on their environments and identify functions and parts of plants and animals.

·         Describe a system as a collection of cycles, structures and processes that interact while exhibiting patterns of change and constancy which can be observed and measured for prediction purposes.

·         Use models of objects and events as tools to understand the natural world and systems.



·         Identify hardware and network components.

·         Access remote equipment on a network and publish in multiple formats.

·         Start, exit, and save using a variety of devices.

·         Use proper keyboarding techniques and design attributes and proof and edit documents.

·         Follow acceptable use policies and respect intellectual property.

·         Use keyword searches, on-line help, and appropriate navigation strategies.

·         Choose best work for an electronic portfolio.